Author Guidelines


The Asia Pacific Journal of Academic Research in Business Administration is a refereed journal of the College of Business Administration at Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas City, Philippines. The journal is published annually. For paper submission, the paper must be an original copy, about 5,000 words, single-spaced, and with tables and figures. The research abstract must have 150-200 words with at least 5 keywords or phrases.

Manuscript Preparation

  1. Organize the paper following these major headings: Title, Author/s and Affiliations/address, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations (optional) and References.
  2. Acknowledgments and References. The References should substantially consist of articles published in current content-covered or peer-reviewed journals. Avoid citations of unpublished reports and theses.
  3. Type the entire manuscript single-spaced on a short white bond paper (8.5 x 11”) with 0.8” margin in the left and right side, 0.9” from the top and 0.6” at the bottom using a Times New Roman font type of 11. References, Acknowledgments, plates and legends should also be typed single-spaced.
  4. Leave one space before and after the major headings as well as one space before and after the sub-headings. Use endnotes rather than footnotes.
  5. Spell out acronyms or unfamiliar abbreviations when these are mentioned for the first time in the text.
  6. Write the scientific names of species completely with author (s) when it is first mentioned in the text and without author in succeeding references. Scientific names should be written in italics.
  7. Do not spell out numbers unless they are used to start a sentence.
  8. Use the metric system only or the International System of Units. Use abbreviations of units only beside numerals (e.g. 9 m); otherwise spell out the unit (e.g. kilometer from here). Do not use plural forms or periods for abbreviations of units. Use the bar for compound units (e.g. 1 kg.ha/yr). Place a zero before the decimal in numbers less than one (e.g. 0.25).
  9. Titles of Tables and Captions of Figures should be as short as possible and understandable without referring to the text. Figures should consist only of simple line drawings, computer-generated graphics or good quality black and white photographs. Label of Figures and plates should be written below the image and should be as such a size so these are still legible even after reducing the size by as much as 50%.
  10. Cite references in the text as author (year). Writing of et. al. in intext citation and in the list of references/literature cited is discouraged but instead authors are all listed; references in press as (author, in press) and unpublished reference as (author, unpubl. data or author, pers.comm). If two or more references are cited, arrange them by year.
  11. Manuscript should be as concise the subject and research method permit, generally about 5000 words, double-spaced.
  12. To promote anonymous review, authors should not identify themselves directly or indirectly in their papers or in experimental test instruments included in their papers or in experimental test instruments included in the submission. Single authors should not use the editorial “we”.

Titles. Titles of tables are written above while title of figures and plates are written below the images.

Author(s)’ name(s). The first name, middle initial and family name are provided. The email address is written below the name followed by the department, name of institutional affiliation and country.

Abstract. An abstract of about 200-250 words should be presented immediately preceding the text. The abstract should concisely inform the reader of the manuscript’s topic, its methods, and its findings.

Keywords. The abstract must be followed by at least three keywords to assist in indexing the paper and identifying qualified reviewers.

Introduction. The text of the paper should start with a section labeled “Introduction”, which provides more details about the paper’s rationale, motivation, significance, scope and limitations and the setting of the study. Both the Abstract and Introduction should be relatively nontechnical yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution. The manuscript’s title but neither the author’s name nor other identification designations, should appear on the Abstract page.

Citations. In-text citations are made using an author-year format. Cited works must correspond to the list of works listed in the “Reference” section.

  1. In the text, works are cited as follows: author’s last name and year, without comma, in parentheses.
  2. For cited works that include more than one work by an author (or same co-authors) that is published in the same year, the suffix a, b, etc., is to follow the date in the within-text citations and in the “Reference” section.
  3. When the author’s name is mentioned in the text, it should be listed in the references.
  4. Citations to institutional works should use acronyms or short titles where practicable.
  5. If the paper refers to as statutes, legal treatises, or court cases, citations acceptable in law reviews should be used.
  6. The use of et. al. is not allowed. All authors should be correctly cited.

Pagination. All pages, including tables, appendices and references should be serially numbered.

Numbers. Spell out numbers from one to ten, except when used in tables and lists, and when used with mathematical, statistical, scientific, or technical units and quantities, such as distances, weights and measures. percentage and decimal fractions (in nontechnical copy, use the word percent in the text).

Conclusions. It should briefly answer the objectives of the study. They are no repetitions of the discussions but are judgments of the results obtained

Recommendations. It is optional; allowed only when results warrant recommendation.

References. Every manuscript must include Reference section that contains ONLY those works cited within the text. Each entry should contain all information necessary or unambiguous identification of the published work. The style format is based from American Psychological Association (APA) with hanging indention of 0.5. Do not categorize according to sources and must be arranged alphabetically. There should be majority of which should come from printed and online journals.

Publication Fee. Article Online publication fee is Php 2,000 (for Filipino Authors) and USD70 (for foreign authors) per paper not more than 5000 words for both single and multiple authors. Fee for each additional word is USD0.02. If the paper is accepted for publication, you will be asked to pay Article Publication Fee and an optional payment of Php 800 (for Filipino Authors) and USD80 (for foreign authors) for Printing and Shipping of the Journal per copy.

Open Access Policy

Asia Pacific Journal of Academic Research in Business Administration (APJARBA is available both online and print. The content of the journal is freely available to the readers, researchers, students and institutions for download, copy, search, cite or link to the full text of the article. The work in this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Authors are responsible for obtaining from the copyright holder permission to reproduce any figures for which copyright exists. By submitting the manuscript, it is believed that the author(s) will be responsible of any disputed content in the respective paper/article and author(s) provide formal consent to APJARBA/publisher and transfer of copyright. The Publisher, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, Peer-reviewers and Editorial Board Members of the journal cannot be held responsible for any errors, controversies or any consequences from the use of information contained in the journal. It is also be accepted by the manuscript submitted that he/she shall never challenge the Editors/Publisher in any court of law for any issue. The concepts and views expressed in the research papers/articles in the journal do not essentially correspond to the views of the publisher/editor. The publisher/editor of the journal is not liable for errors or any consequences arising from the exercise of information contained in it.

Policy on Publication Ethics


Asia Pacific Journal of Academic Research in Business Administration (APJARBA) under the supervision of the College of Business Administration at Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU) – Batangas aims to disseminate latest research findings and innovation in any business related fields of studies through online and print journal. It ensures the quality of manuscript for publication through confirming and verifying its academic integrity and adherence to the standards and policies of responsible conduct of research. This policy is also established to emphasize the importance of meeting and maintaining the highest quality of ethical standards and scientific validity. It encourages authors to commit themselves with competence in practicing credibility and professionalism gearing towards the culture of excellence through collaboration with the international research community in publication.

Publication Practice

Authors should submit their research articles in accordance with the author guidelines as prescribed by the journal. Research articles to be submitted for publication should not be previously published nor considered to another publication elsewhere. The author should clearly declare the originality of the research work which had never been accepted for other journals. If modifications had been made already on the research article with enhancement on the synthesis and analysis of findings, an overlap of about 10 per cent is considered acceptable between such journals.

Copying of another’s research work without citing the original source and considering it as one’s own work is an unethical practice and in the field of research and professional practice, this is completely unacceptable. Plagiarism takes place in five types: copy & paste plagiarism, word switch plagiarism, style plagiarism, metaphor plagiarism and idea plagiarism.

All submitted papers in APJARBA are being processed in Plagiarism Detection Software using Turnitin with allowable similarity index of less than 10%. All submitted papers failed to meet this initial requirement of the journal are not being accepted to undergo the review process.

Authorship Practice

Authorship credit must be based on the major contribution of each author on the conceptualization and design of the study; revision of the paper that provides substantial insights and implications to findings, collection, analysis and interpretation of data until the completion of research in drawing conclusions and recommendations with action plan or program. No one among the primary authors who met these criteria would be omitted from the authorship. People without any considerable involvement or substantial intellectual participation in the research process would not be considered as one of the authors like those who obtain funds for the research, collect important data and materials, or coordinate with the publication are considered significant but do not qualify for authorship as well as the inclusion of ‘ghost author’ is highly discouraged. The source of funding may be included in the acknowledgement as well as those people who became part either directly or indirectly in the completion of the research paper.

The corresponding author shall be responsible in communicating with the Editor to accomplish the copyright form and inform the co-authors regarding the status of the research article submitted and accepted to APJARBA to avoid multiple submission of paper to other journals at the same time. If the paper is rejected for publication to APJARBA that is the right time to submit the research article to other journals. The corresponding author is also responsible in the accuracy of the content of the paper particularly the complete list of the names of the co-authors, updated affiliations and email addresses.

Corrections and Retraction Policy

Article retraction may be done in the case of stating unreliable findings in the conclusion, infringements of professional ethical codes such as plagiarism, multiple submissions to other journals or publication, fraudulent use of data or information and the like.

Article replacement may be done if the article might cause serious health risk if acted upon from false or inaccurate information, the author/s will be asked to retract and replace the original article with the corrected version of the paper. A link for the notice of retraction will be provided to the corrected article.

Erratum may be done for corrections in article that might have missed during the editing resulting from errors or omissions of significant information. This is made accessible to the readers with link to the corrected version. Within one year after the publication date of the paper will only be allowed the authors to remove or replace papers with corrected article.

Copyrights for articles published in APJARBA are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The APJARBA/LPU-Batangas is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author’s responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.